Rubber is a broad concept - rubber material will usually withstand wear and tear. That's why it's all crucial to choose the right adhesive for rubber.
The most common rubber material is neoprene or natural rubber, which both have a good abrasion resistance. Natural rubber, however, handles chemicals and UV radiation worse than an artificial rubber. Another rubber material with excellent wear resistance is polyurethane rubber.
Adhesive for rubber often contains solvent for rubber, ie. the rubber is dissolved in the solvent. Another challenge may be that some adhesives are very fast and the parts stick together before they are placed correctly. Another way to bond rubber is to use a hot melt, it is also fast, but you get a non stick surface.
If the adhesive needs to fill a gap, for example on a rough surface, you can choose to work with two-component adhesive, an epoxy or polyurethane. Most commonly used for bonding rubber material is probably the polyurethane adhesive. Rubber is, as mentioned earlier, a broad concept. A quality of neoprene rubber can be bonded with eg one type of epoxy - while the adhesive does not stick at all, against another rubber, which is called the same. The composition of your rubber affects the adhesiveness. Therefore, we always recommend that we or you test first!
In the manufacturing of plastic and rubber materials, one often gets a surface of the material which has a lower strength than the material in general. There may also be a release agent or surface contamination. The surfaces must always be clean and a primer is recommended.